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Home » Eye Care Services » Your Eye Health » How the Eye Works

How the Eye Works

To understand how the human eye works, first imagine a photographic camera—since cameras were developed very much with the human eye in mind.

How do we see what we see?

eye diagramLight reflects off of objects and enters the eyeball through a transparent layer of tissue at the front of the eye called the cornea. The cornea accepts widely divergent light rays and bends them through the pupil—the dark opening in the center of the colored portion of the eye.

The pupil appears to expand or contract automatically based on the intensity of the light entering the eye. In truth, this action is controlled by the iris—a ring of muscles within the colored portion of the eye that adjusts the pupil opening based on the intensity of light. (So when a pupil appears to expand or contract, it is actually the iris doing its job.)

The adjusted light passes through the lens of the eye. Located behind the pupil, the lens automatically adjusts the path of the light and brings it into sharp focus onto the receiving area at back of the eye—the retina.

An amazing membrane full of photoreceptors (a.k.a. the “rods and cones”), the retina converts the light rays into electrical impulses. These then travel through the optic nerve at the back of the eye to the brain, where an image is finally perceived.

A delicate system, subject to flaws.

It’s easy to see that a slight alteration in any aspect of how the human eye works—the shape of the eyeball, the cornea’s health, lens shape and curvature, retina problems—can cause the eye to produce fuzzy or blurred vision. That is why many people need vision correction. Eyeglasses and contact lenses help the light focus images correctly on the retina and allow people to see clearly.

In effect, a lens is put in front of the eye to make up for any deficiencies in the complex vision process.

The main parts of the human eye include:

  • Cornea: transparent tissue covering the front of the eye that lets light travel through
  • Iris: a ring of muscles in the colored part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil
  • Pupil: an opening in the center of the iris that changes size to control how much light is entering the eye.
  • Sclera: the white part of the eye that is composed of fibrous tissue that protects the inner workings of the eye
  • Lens: located directly behind the pupil, it focuses light rays onto the retina
  • Retina: membrane at the back of the eye that changes light into nerve signals
  • Rods and cones: special cells used by the retina to process light
  • Fovea: a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cone cells. It allows us to see things sharply.
  • Optic Nerve: a bundle of nerve fibers that carries messages from the eyes to the brain
  • Macula: a small and highly sensitive part of the retina responsible for central vision, which allows a person to see shapes, colors, and details clearly and sharply.

 

Special thanks to the EyeGlass Guide, for informational material that aided in the creation of this website. Visit the EyeGlass Guide today!

To Our Beloved Patients...

We are closely monitoring the fluid situation and want to be extremely vigilant to do our best to flatten out the curve for our community, country and globally. To respect social distancing as recommended by the CDC, the City of Keller, and our various Medical and Optometric Associations, it is with great considerations we must implement some changes to our schedule starting June 1st, 2020. Thank you all for your patience and understanding during this challenging time as we navigate through a global crisis.

Our hours of operation will be 8:30am-5pm Monday through Friday, closing for lunch from 12:00-1:00. We are open the 2nd Saturday of every month by appointment only, from 8:30am-2pm.

The front door will be locked, and only scheduled patients will be allowed in the office one at a time. If you arrive at our office, please call 817-562-2020 and let us know the nature of your visit. We will do our best to help you.

We will be providing curb side delivery for ALL materials such as glasses and contacts lenses.

We will be conducting temperature checks of anyone entering the office and have them use hand sanitizer at the door.

Questions that will be asked of patients prior to appointment...

1. Have you or anyone in your household been out of the country in the last month or have traveled to any high-risk areas?

2. Have you or anyone in your household been sick or experiencing any flu or cold like symptoms?

3. Are you having any major vision changes, ocular pain or discomfort? If not, then you may be asked to schedule at a later date.

May God bless you and your family,

Baker Family Eyecare